glossary

Glossary


 


Abba

Loving respectful term for father

Acharya

Literally, one who observes the rules of his order title of a
Vedic preceptor or teacher

Adhyayan

Reading, studying

Adivasis

Literally, aboriginals. Term applied to the primitive hill tribes who
were living outside the Hindi social system

Advaita

School of Vedanta philosophy. Advaita is a monist system of epistemology
and ontology and holds that the phenomenal universe as viewed by man is
maya or illusion. Not-two-ness

Ahimsa

Non-violence Sanskrit ‘to do no harm’

Akashic records

Astral records, from akash ‘sky’

Ambalal Patel

Friend of Osho’s father. Osho called him Bapuji. Father of Ma, Anand
Sheela

Ambedkar, Doctor
(1893-1953)

Untouchable educated in England. 

Anirvachana

That which cannot be said – Gautam Buddha

Anna

Former monetary unit, coin, 1/16 rupee

Aparigraha

Jain term meaning to limit possessions to what is necessary and
important

Appa deepo bhava 

Be a light unto yourself

Apsara

Heavenly nymph courtesans and dancing girls of Hindu gods dispensing
erotic bliss

Arhat, arhata(s)

Introvert enlightened master

Arunachal

Holy mountain in South India where Raman Maharshi used to live

Arya Samaj

A Hindu social reform organization founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati
in Bombay on 7 April 1875. It was advocating a return to Vedic ideals,
and its purpose was to move the Hindu Dharma away from fictitious
beliefs. One section of the Samaj also favorued Westernization and
English education.

Ashoka chakra

Wheel motif of cosmic order on the Lion Pillar at Sarnath; adopted as
the national emblem of India in 1947.

Ashram

From Sanskrit ‘to counsel’ or ‘to seek counsel within oneself’. A place
with a spiritual master to which one retreats for guidance.

Audholia, B.S.

Principal of college in Jabalpur

Aurobindo Ghosh
(1872-1950)

Revolutionary and spiritual leader. Author of many religious and
literary works including The Life Divine

Aes dhammo
sanantano

‘This is the eternal law’
   

Babasaheb

He became a lawyer and wrote the Indian constitution

Babu

Lit. ‘smelling of fish’ was British colonists’ contemptuous name for
their Bengali clerks, later became title of respect

Badri Prasad Gupta

Principal 1947

Baksheesh

Tip, gift, or bribe

Bapu Dad

Nickname of Mahatma Gandhi

Baul

Peripatetic rustic bard of Bengal who traveled from village to village
singing devotional hymns and folk songs on small drums ‘dugi’ and
one-stringed fiddles known as ektaras. Means ‘mad’ or ‘possessed’ in
Bengali.

Begum

Indian Muslim noblewomen. A title of rank and respect: ‘Madam’

Bhabhi

‘Elder brother’s wife’, Osho’s nickname for his mother

Bhagavad Gita

The sixth book of the Mahabharata, assigned by scholars to the fourth
century. Its philosophy is eclectic, combining elements of the Sankhya,
Yoga, and Vedanta systems with the later theory of bhakti

Bhai

Brother

Bhakti

Devotion, focus of worship on a beloved deity

Bhagwan

The Exhalted, the Blessed One, the Lord, the personal God, as compared
with the undifferentiated Being which is Brahman

Bhagwandin Mahatma

Jaina scholar, friend and guest of Osho

Bhajan

Devotional song

Bhang

A traditionally, mildly narcotic drink in which milk, or lassi, and
spices are mixed with marijuana

Bharat

Full form: Bharatavarsha. Literally, the land of the descendants of the
sage Bharata. Sanskrit term applied to the Indian subcontinent in Hindu
traditions alternative official name for India in the Constitution

Bhikha

Indian ecstatic mystic

Bikkhu

A fully ordained monk

Bhole

Hindi for ‘innocent’, nickname for one of Osho’s teachers

Bhonsla

Dynasty of Maratha rulers of Nagpur founded about 1730 by Raghuji
Bhonsla. Last ruler Pratap Singh 1810

Bhoora

The white one’ name of Osho’s father’s servant, Osho’s faithful
childhood guardian

Bhopal

1. State in central India fief carved out of the kingdom of Rani
Durgawati of gondwana and placed under a Nawab by Akbar became
independent in 1761 but later submitted to the British Raj.
  2. Town in central India capital of the former state of Bhopal and the
modern state of Madhya Pradesh

Biryani

Rice and meat dish

Bodh-Gaya

Buddhist holy place six miles south of modern Gaya in Bihar where
Gautama Buddha received enlightenment under a Bo-tree site of a Buddhist
monastery in ancient times. The Bo-tree was dug up and destroyed by
Sasanka, the Hindu king of Gauda, to signify his hatred of Buddhism

Bodhisattva

In Mahayana Buddhism an arat (saint) who has attained nirvana in this
life or is considered likely to become, in a future incarnation, a
Buddha

Bombay

1. City in western India capital of the state of Maharashtra also known
as Gateway of India. It was a Portuguese possession from 1510 to 1661,
when it was ceded to Charles II as part of the dowry of Princess
Catharine of Braganza. In 1668 Cherles II transferred the place to the
East India Company for an annual rent of ten pounds. With the opening of
the Suez Canal in 1869 it became the first port of call for ships coming
from Europe. 
 
2. Former presidency and state which at one time included modern
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Sindh

Bose, Subhas Chandra
(1897-1945)

Indian and Bengali nationalist leader who advocated violent means to
expel the British imprisoned 11 times. Fled India in 1941 during WW II
and secured German and Japanese support for an Indian provisional
Government called Azad Hind. Died in an air accident in 1945

Brahma

Major Hindu deity considered as the creator of the universe

Brahman

The Universal Soul or the Absolute that dwells in every living thing and
guiders every being

Brahmin

The Hindu priestly caste and the top of the caste pyramid. Every Brahmin
is a descendent of the rishis and his duties include the performance of
sacrificial rites and the teaching of the Vedas

Buddha, Gautama

Also called Siddhartha (He who has accomplished his purpose), Sakya-Muni
(Sage of the Sakyas) and Tathagata (He who has arrived at the truth).
563-483 B.C. Founder of Buddhism
   

Calcutta

City on the Hooghly River capital of West Bengal former capital of
Bengal Presidency and Indian Empire. Founded in 1690, Calcutta became in
1772 the capital of British possessions in India and remained so until
1912. Now Kolkata

Central Provinces

Former province in British India containing four divisions Nagpur,
Jabalpur, Narbada and Chhattisgarh. Berar became a part of the province
in 1903. Name changed to Madhya Pradesh in 1950

Chakra

The spinning wheel, used as a symbol of the Indian National Congress
used to emphasize the importance of cottage industries and swadesi goods

Chakravarti

Universal emperor

Chappals

Sandals

Charaiveti

Buddha’s words to his disciples, ‘go on, go on’

Charpoy

Rope-strung bed

Chaturmasa

Four-month monsoon break when all ascetics cease their wanderings and
stay in one place

Chowkidar

Guard or nightwatchman

Choli

Short Indian bodice, sometimes transparent

Chotelal Munde

Osho’s geography teacher

Crore

Indian term for 10 million, 100 lakh
   

Dadda

Father

Dak

Bungalows built by the British to house traveling officials. Mail posts

Dandekar

Professor of psychology

Darshan

Spiritual experience or blessing conferred by the sight of a great
personality or teacher. Used to refer to audience granted by king or
holy man

Das

Suffix, meaning ‘slave of the Lord’

Dasgupta, Doctor

Professor of philosophy

Delhi

City on the Yamuna River ancient capital of India. The city was sacked
many times during its history and it remained the center of Muslim power
until 1857. From 1912 capital of British possessions in India and
capital of India from 1947

Delwara

Jaina temple in Mount Abu

Desai, Morarji

Prime minister of India, 1977-1979

Devadasi

A woman serving as a dancer and courtesan in a Hindu temple

Devi

Great goddess like Shakti, female divinity

Dharma

Duty, righteousness, faith (for Hindus)

Dharamsala

1. Rest house. 
 
2. Town in Himarchal Pradesh

Dhoti

Ankle-length loincloth, men’s loose pants of fine cotton. Traditional
male attire.

Digambara

A Jain sect whose tenets in its purest form required its members to go
without clothes

Diksha

Initiation ritual

Diwali

Annual festival in India with lights, fireworks and gifts

Divan

A collection of poetry by a single author

Dube, Shambhu

Vice-president of Gadarwara and friend of Osho full name Shambhuratan
Dube

Durbar

Court

Dubash

Interpreter

Durgavati

Widowed rani of Raja Dalpat Sa of Gondwana and regent of her son Bir
Narayan. Defeated and slain by Akbar’s general Asaf Khan in 1564
   

Ekagrata

Concentration, one pointedness

Ektara

Single-stringed instument, popular among Bauls
   

Fa Hien
(or, Fa-Hsian). 

Chinese Buddhist monk who made a pilgrimage to India, 401-410, to carry
back to China complete copies of the Vinaya-pitaka. He wrote a valuable
account of his travels

Fakir

Sufi holy man, dervish or wandering Muslim ascetic (lit. ‘poor’)

Firangi

Foreigner
   

Gadi

The throne of an Indian ruler a cushion or padded seat on which the king
sits. regarded as the seat of royalty

Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini
(1917-1984)

Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. Third prime minister of India 1965-77 and
again 1980-1984 when she was assassinated by her sikh bodyguards. Both
her sons Sanjay and Rajiv were to be killed too

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, Mahatma
(1869-1948)

Surname: Bapu. Indian nationalist leader and architect of Indian
independence. He rejected not only the British Empire but also much of
western civilization and sought to reconstruct Indian society on the
basis of Ram Rajya, the ideal Hindu social and religious policy

Ganja

Marijuana

Gate, gate

Sanskrit for ‘finished, gone’

Gazal

Popular short rimed lyric

Gautama Siddharta
(c563-483 BC)

Original name of Buddha, aka Sakyamuni, Sakya, Tathagata etc

Ghats

River front, usually reached by steps built for the benefit of bathers
and washer men. Place for funeral pyres

Ghazal

Urdu poetry set to music

Ghee

Clarified butter

Girnar

Holy place of Jainas

Gokuldas, Raja

Indian freedom fighter, father of seth Govind Das

Gondwana

Territory of the Gonds, a Kolarian aboriginal tribe, in northern Madhya
Pradesh 

Gopi

Milkmaid, in Krishna myth

Governor General

Title and office created by the Regulating Act of 1773 Warren Hastings
was the first of 13 governors to hold the office. From 1848 until 1943
the title was governor general and viceroy of India from 1943 until
1947, governor general of India and crown representative

Guru

Gu’ (darkness) and ‘ru’ (remover) hence any teacher removing darkness

Gwalior

City in Madhya Pradesh known for its Jain and Hindu antiquities and for
its fortress. It became the capital of the Sindhias in 1771 but passed
under British rule after the Sepoy Mutiny. It was returned to the
Sindhias in 1866 in return for Jhansi district
   

Haji Baba

110-year-old friend of Osho

Hardikar, Dr.

Poona physician

Hari Baba

Osho’s uncle’s guru

Hari Prasad Chaurasia

Indian flutist

Hathi dwar

Elephant Gate in Gadarwara

Haveli

Courtyard house or traditional mansion

Himalayas

Literally, the abode of snow. Classical name: Emodus, Imaus. Mountain
system containing the highest mountains of the world and the sources of
the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra

Hindi

Official language of India based on Sanskrit and written in Devanagiri
script. Used as a literary language from the 16th century. Western
division has five subdialects, Eastern three subdialects

Hinduism

Religion of India based on the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita,
the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Known as Brahminism in the
pre-Buddhist period. Three main sects are the Saivas, the Saktas and the
Vaishnavas

Hindustan

Region of North India with Delhi as its political centre

Hiuen Tsang
(or, Yan Chwang).

The most famous of Chinese Buddhist pilgrim-scholars. He came to India
in 630 and remained there until 643. Stayed in Nalanda University as a
student before he left bringing with him 657 volumes of manuscripts. His
observations are recorded in Travels or Record of Western Lands in 12
books

Holi

Major Hindu festival, believed to be once a fertility rite of aboriginal
origin. Celebrated in February-March by throwing coloured powders and
sprinkling colored liquids at people

Homa

Sacrificial fire for making offerings

Hukumchand Seth, Sir

A rich friend of Osho’s
   

Imperial Gazetteer of India

Monumental work in 26 volumes initiated in 1869 and completed 1907-09
under William W. Hunter based on a statistical survey of the topography,
ethnology, agriculture, industry and administration of 240 districts
under British and native rule. Reissued 1908-1909 in a Provincial Series
in 25 volumes

Indian National Congress

Indian nationalist organization founded and held its first session in
Bombay 1885 with W.C. Banerjee as president. It gradually escalated from
a moderate body until it came to espouse purna swaraj (complete
independence) under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. It always
encompassed extremists and moderates, socialists and nonsocialists,
Hindus and Muslims within its ranks. It has remained the dominant ruling
political party in India since independence and is now often referred to
as the Congress Party
   

Jadoo

Magic

Jagatguru

World teacher

Jethmalani, Ram

Leading Indian attorney, Osho’s lawyer

Jhansi

State in Bundelkhand a Maratha dependency until 1819 when it became a
British protectorate. Annexed to the British Empire in 1853 the
disaffected dowager Rani Lakshmi Bai – the Rani of Jhansi – lent her
support to the mutineers during the Sepoy Mutiny. It was recaptured by
the British in 1858 and ceded to Gwalior in 1861

Ji

Ji is a common addition to a name in India, a courtly suffix denoting
respect. From Sanskrit Arya and Prakit ajja.

Jinas

The liberators Tirthankaras or Ford-Makers showing Jains the crossing
place between samsara and liberation

Jinnah, Muhammad Ali
(1876-1948)

Muslim statesman who advocated the creation of Pakistan and served
(1947-48) as its first governor general

Jog, Dr.

One of Osho’s doctors

Jyot

Lamp

Juhu

Suburb and beach in Bombay. Nehru as well as Gandhi have spent their
holidays there
   

Kabir
(1488-1512)

Hindu religious reformer of Muslim birth who lived in Varanasi. He
taught a monotheistic Vaishnavism rejecting every distinction of caste,
religion and sect.

Kaka

Uncle

Kali Yuga
(also, Yudhishira Era).

The present Hindu era is dated from 3102 B.C.

Kama

Sexual desire

Kar Sevak

RSS volunteer/activist

Karma

Fate or destiny

Kantar Master

Osho’s first teacher at school

Khadi, khaddar.

Cloth hand spun on a chakra popularized by Mahatma Gandhi to symbolize
freedom from foreign textiles famous for its temples and erotic
sculptures

Khajuraho

Chandella city in Bundelkhand, built in the 10th and 11th centuries

Khakki, Master
(aka Rajaram, Rajju Khakki)

one of Osho’s high school teachers

Khan

Title of a Muslim lord or prince introduced by the Mughals

Khana

Food, a meal

Khomok

Tension drum of the Bauls its skin head is pierced by a string attached
to a small brass handle

Kirtan

Devotional gathering singing and praising the Lord

Krishna

Hindu god, the eighth avatar of Vishnu

Krishnamurti, Jiddu
(1895-1986)

Indian enlightened master

Kumbh Mela

Literally, pot festival. The largest of the religious Hindu gatherings
held periodically in northern India every three years at Hardwar, Nasik
and Ujjain and every 12 years at Allahabad

Kumkum

Red powder, to show the sexual power of goddesses

Kurta

Loose and long collarless Indian shirt
   

Laddu

Milk-based sweet

Lajpat Rai, Lala
(1856-1928)

Indian extremist nationalist leader and president of the Indian National
Congress in 1919. Author of England’s Debt to India, Unhappy India and
other works. Depicted on Gadarwara Public Libray.

Lakh

One hundred thousand. 10 lakhs are equal to one crore

Lathi

Bamboo or wooden stave used by policemen

Lingam

Phallic symbol for Shiva as Divine Creator

Lion Pillar

Stone pillar erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, near Varanasi, to commemorate
the first sermon of Gautama Buddha delivered here. The pillar is
surmounted by a lion capital. The wheel or chakra motif which appears on
the pillar has been adopted as the symbol of the Republic of India

Lok Sabha

Literally, House of the People lower house of the Indian Parliament

Lungi

Indian-type sarong, longer version of the dhoti
   

Mackwan

Principal, theological college in Jabalpur

Madhya Pradesh

State in the Indian Union formed in 1956 comprising 17 districts of the
state of the same name formed in 1947, the former state of Madhya Bharat
with Gwalior and Indore, the former states of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh
and the Sironj subdevision of Kotah district. Capital: Bhopal

Magga Baba

Enlightened man Osho met in Jabalpur

Maharaja

Title of a sovereign prince of a large state

Maharani

Queen of a maharaja

Maharishi

Means ‘great seer’

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Originator of Transendental Meditation

Maharshi, Shree Ramana

Enlightened man, lived in the hills of Arunachal; died of cancer

Mahatma

Literally, great soul title applied to a a social and religious leader
regarded as an extraordinary or holy person. Mohandas K. Gandhi notably

Mahavir Jayanti

Jaina festival celebrating birthday of Mahavira

Mahavira, Vardhamana

Founder of Jainism and the 24th and last Jina or conqueror who lived
about 500 B.C. Renounced the world and practiced severe ascetic penances
and attained enlightenment at the age of 42. His legendary history is
given in the Kalpasutra and Mahaviracharita

Maidan

Playing-field

Marg

Way or path

Masta Baba

Remarkable enlightened man who traveled with Osho and introduced him to
prominent persons

Mataji

White-clad Digambara nun ‘respected mother’

Math

A monastery

Maya

Illusion

Mehta

Osho’s professor in psychology

Mela

Religious gathering, festival or fair

MLA

Member of the Legislative Assembly (of a state, rather than the national
Parliament in Delhi whose members are called MPs)

Moksha

Enlightenment, liberation ‘absolute freedom’

Mountbatten, Lord Louis
(1900-1979)

Last viceroy of British India March-August 1947 and first govenor
general of the Dominion of India (1947-48). Presided over the historic
transfer of power from the Crown to the people of India

Mudra

Symbolic or ritual gestures of hands, used to differentiate the images
of Buddha

Mughal

Dynasty of 26 sovereigns founded in 1526 by Babur which ruled India
until 1957 when the last Mughal emperor was exiled from India for taking
part in the Sepoy Mutiny

Muktananda, Baba

Contemporary Indian guru

Mullah

Muslim priest

Mullah Nasruddin

Mythical Sufi mystic, appears in jokes

Munnu Mian

Photographer in Gadarvara

Muni

Jain monk or nun who has taken the vow of mouna or silence and is
credited with preternatural powers. Osho was using the pet name Mounu
when addressing Ma Yoga Kranti in Jabalpur

Munshi

Language teacher, translator, secretary
   

Nadana

Steps in ritual dance

Nalanda

Seat of a Buddhist university from the first to the twelfth century in
Bihar. Hiuen Tsang recorded in 635 that 300 lecture rooms and a library
that occupied three buildings served 150 teachers and 3000 students from
all over Asia

Namaskar

Respectful Hindu greeting ‘I bow to thee’

Nana

Maternal grandfather

Nani

Maternal grandmother

Nanak
(1469-1539)

Founder of Sikhism and its first Guru whose sayings and hymns comprise
the Adi Granth, the holy book of the Sikhs. Nanak tried to fuse elements
of Hinduism and Islam in his new religion and had an impressive
following in Punjab

Narmada

Holy river ten kilometres from Gadarwara in central and western India
rising in north Madhya Pradesh and flowing west through the Vindhya and
Satpura ranges to the Arabian Sea. Length, 800 miles

Nath Bhatt, Shri

Gandhian politician in Gadarwara

National Library

Central library established at Calcutta in 1902 by the amalgamation of
the Calcutta Public Library and the Imperial Library

Natthu Nai (Kaka)

Opium-eating haircutter in Gadarwara

Naudra

Name of bridge in Jabalpur

Nawab
(also: nazim nabob)

Title of the deputy or viceroy of a Mughal province later adopted as a
grand title, usually for men

Nehru, Jawaharlal
(1889-1964)

Indian nationalist leader and first prime minister of India (1947-1964).
Son of the nationalist Motilal Nehru and father of Indira Gandhi. Joined
the non-cooperatio movement in 1920 advocated socialism at home and an
anti-imperialist stand abroad. Author of Autobiography, Glimpses of
World History and Discovery of India 

New Delhi

Capital of India since 1912 situated on the west bank of the Yamuna
River southeast of Old Delhi. The entire city was designed by the
British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens

Nigam, Mirza

High school teacher in Gadarwara

Nirvana

Enlightenment. Properly: nibbana. Literally ‘blown out’, as a candle.
Nonexistence considered as the goal of a bodhisattva
   

Om Mani Padme Hum

Tibetan mantra
   

Paan

Mildly narcotic, preparation of betel nut

Pagal Baba

Enlightened mystic, friend of Osho

Pali

A Prakit language that developed into the sacred language of Buddhism.
It is the parent of Sinhalese

Pandal

Temporary covered structure for outdoor receptions, functions and
ceremonies

Pandit

A Hindu scholar of Brahmin caste who is learned enough in the scriptures
to interpret and expound them English version ‘pundit’

Parakh, Ramakant

Garage owner in Jabalpur

Paramatma

Supreme soul, atman in Vedantic philosophy

Paramount Power

Term applied to the British Crown in its role as suzerain and protector
of Indian native states. It was particularly used in treatises between
the British government and Indian rulers

Paranjape

Principal of college where Osho graduated

Parekh, Rekhhcand

Rich friend and supporter of Osho

Parmananda

Friend of Krishnamurti who brought a message to Osho

Patel, Ambalal

Friend of Osho’s father, father of Ma Anand Sheela

Pathak brothers

Business men in Jabalpur

Patkar

Lecture Hall in Bombay

Philosia

Love of seeing, not of knowledge

Poona

City in Maharashtra on the Muta River near the crest of the Western
Ghats and commanding one of the passes to Bombay capital of Marathas
under Shivaji and Shambuji and from 1749 until 1817 when it fell to the
British

Prabhu

The writer caste in Western India

Prakit

Demotic form of Sanskrit which forms the connecting link between
Sanskrit and modern Indic languages

Prasad

Blessed food, consecrated offering

Puja

Religious prayer and devotion (for Hindus)

Puranas

Collections of ancient sacred Hindu writings composed in epic couplets
and consisting partly of legendary histories and partly of speculative
cosmogony including genealogies of gods and heroes. They are 18 in
number

Purna

The full moon. 

Purnima

The full-moon night
   

Qalander

Sufi mendicant of Holy fool

Qawwali

Poems and hymns sung at Sufi shrines
   

Rahimuddin, Maulana

Osho’s Govt. Secondary High School in Gadarwara

Raga

Literally, tint. Class of melodies in Indian music that create a
specific emotional mood with their own characteristic signature

Raj

1. A kingdom ruled by a raja.  
  2. Sovereignty or paramount power

Raja

A king or ruler of royal lineage

Rajehandra, Shrimad

Gandhi’s guru

Ram Jethmalani

Osho’s attorney

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
(1834-1886)

Bengali-born Hindu spiritual leader whose inspired fervor attracted to
him a vast following including Swami Vivekananda. He tried to modernize
Vedantist philosophy. The social dimensions of his teachings are
reflected in the work of Ramakrishna Mission, an international
missionary organization

Ranade, doctor

Indian philosopher, Allahabad University, Osho’s censor at Sagar
University

Rani

Queen

Resident

Representative of the Crown and Paramount Power in a native state
ambassador of the Governor General in Calcutta. Title changed to Agent
or Commissioner

Rishi

A Hindu poet-sage possessed of extraordinary spiritual power and wisdom
transmitter of ancient Hindu scriptures and Vedic hymns. Rishis
generally lived in jungles, alone or with a group of disciples the place
where they lived was known as an ashram

Roy, S.S.

Osho’s professor and friend, later head of philosophy department at
Allahabad University

Rupee

Indian coin, comes from Hindi ‘rupaiya’ meaning ‘gold’
   

Sadhana

Spiritual discipline ordered by one’s guru and leading to realization

Sadhu

A holy man who has renounced the world and attained spiritual
enlightenment through severe tapas or ascetic practices

Sahib, Dr.

Osho’s nickname when playing doctor as child

Saivism

Hindu sect devoted to the worship of Siva and his symbols 

Sakkar

River near Gadarwara, meaning ‘the sweet’

Samadhi

Lit. ‘going beyond all sickness’ Patanjali’s word for enlightenment. The
highest stage of meditation, in which one achieves unity with the
Absolute. The tomb may be referred to as his samadhi like in Osho’s case

Sammasati

‘Remembering’, Buddha’s word for witnessing

Samsara

The illusory physical world and its cycle of rebirth. Sanskrit for ‘to
flow together’.

Sangha

Religious congregation usually in the context of a Buddhist or Jain
monastic community

Sankirtan

Religious procession

Sankritanyana, Rahul

Friend of Osho who went to Soviet Union

Sannyasin

Hindu ascetic or wanderer who has entered the last of the four stages of
spiritual perfection

Sanskrit

Sacred language of Hinduism written in Devanagiri script belongs to the
Indic branch of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of Indo-European languages.
Its earlier form was known as Vedic. Sanskrit is a syllabic language
with no officially recognized way of transliterating Sanskrit into Roman
script

Sarvodaya

Gandhi’s concept of the welfare of all

Satyagraha

Literary ‘truth-force’, used by Mahatma Gandhi to define his non-violent
agitation

Satya Yuga

Devanagari, also called Sat Yuga or the Golden age in Hinduism when man
is governed by the gods in perfect harmony.

Saxena, Shree Krishna

Professor and friend of Osho

Sepoy

Indian soldier in the service of the East India Company

Shakti

Female counterpart of the Hindu deity embodying the feminine aspect of
cosmic energy

Shaktipat

The master’s transfer of cosmic energy

Shankar, Ravi

World-famous Indian sitar maestro

Sharma, Doctor Baijnath

History professor at Jabalpur University

Shastra

Scripture or holy writ also applied to every kind of knowledge or
science. Means ‘rules’ in Sanskrit.

Shiv Sena

Militant Hindu organization.

Shri

Honorific title from Sanskrit meaning holy. Now used as the equivalent
for Mr in official correspondence, as a contraction of Shriman for males
and Shrimati for females. In Punjab the prefix Lala is preferred, in the
North Babu

Shrivastava, Doctor S.N.L.

Osho’s professor of logic at college in Jabalpur

Siva

Third god of the Hindu triad regarded in later mythology as the
destroyer with Brahma as the creator and Vishnu as the preserver

Sloka

Stanza in a Sanskrit poem a pair of rhyming lines

Smrati

Less desirable alternative to ‘smriti’ (Mrs)

Smritis

What has been remembered’ religious works whose authority is only
exceeded by that of shrutis thus all post-vedic religious writing, the
word being synonymous with shastras

Sruti

‘Heard directly from master’, Vedic scripture

Sudra

Member of the lowest Hindu caste

Sufi

Muslim mystic

Sunderbans

Tract of intersecting creeks and channels, swampy islands and jungles
which constitute the Gangatic Delta near the Bay of Bengal

Suraj Prakash

Bombay friend of Osho’s in whose house he stayed and lectured after
World Tour in 1986

Sutra

Literally ‘a thread’ in Sanskrit, so called because the collection of
discourses was a string of rules. Part of Buddhist canon, or body of
Hindu sacred writings in four groups dealing with rituals, customs, law
and magic

Svetambara

One of the two great sects of the Jain faith

Swadesi

Literally, ‘of one’s own country’, indigenous, i.e. Indian. Political
movement launched in Bengal in 1905 to boycott foreign goods. It was
developed by Mahatma Gandhi to include a campaign for economic self
sufficiency and promotion of cottage industries

Swami

Title of the spiritual preceptor of a cult or religious order

SwarajLiterally,
‘one’s own rule’.

Political autonomy as the goal of the Indian nationalist movement
   

Tabla

Pair of hand drums used in Hindustani music

Tagore, Rabindranath
(1861-1941)

Indian poet and playwright awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in
1913. Author of about 60 works including Gitanjali, The Gardener and
Sadhana

Tantrism

Saivite sect which follows the occult rites prescribed in Dattatreya’s
Tantras divided into the right-handed sect, so called because it follows
the ancient Vedic ritual, and the left-handed sect which concentrates on
the worship of the female aspects of the deities known as shaktis

Taran Taran

Taran Swami (The Savior) lived in the sixteenth century as a
contemporary of the Indian saints Kabir and Nanak. His family was of the
Parwar sect, a subdivision of the Digambara sect. Osho read as a child
his complete teachings in 14 books and was influenced by Taran from
early age. Taran’s language was shaped by his reading of the books of
Acharya Kundakunda. Osho’s first booklets in the 1950s were on Taran
Swami

Thakur

Osho’s Bengali friend landowner or squire

Tilak

Sacred mark on the centre of a Hindu forehead

Tirtha

Crossing place or ford hence a sacred place

Tirthankara

Literary, bridge finder. A Jain saint considered as a mode of crossing
the dark waters of life

Tripathi, Doctor

Historian, vice-chancellor of Sagar University

Tripitaka

Literally ‘Three Baskets’ (because the palm leaves on which they were
written were kept in baskets). Collection of Buddhist writings embodying
Buddha’s teachings and oral traditions

Tulsishyam

Meditation camp in Gujarat

Twice-born

Upper-caste Hindu, one who has undergone a ‘second birth’, i.e. a
spiritual one generally used to refer to Brahmins
   

Umakant Joshi

Osho’s friend

Upanishads

Literally ‘sitting close to’, in the sense of a group sitting around a
teacher. Over 100 philosophical treatises or metaphysical commentaries
attached to the Brahmanas which form the core teachings of Vedanta

Vedanta

Literally ‘the goal of the Vedas’ group of ancient Hindu philosophical
traditions concerned with self-realisation and the understanding of the
ultimate nature of reality

Vedas

Collections of Hindu sacred writings including hymns, prayers,
ritualistic instructions, philosophy, mythology and holy lore in some
100 books

Vedic

Language of the Vedas from which Sanskrit is derived

Viceroy

Title and office created by the Government of India Act of 1858. Earl
Canning was the first and Lord Linlithgow the 20th and last

Vihara

A Buddhist monastery originally the hall where the monks met and later
extended to the whole building and to the attached shrine

Vindhyachal

Mountain range near Osho’s birthplace

Vishnu

One of the three principal gods of the Hindu pantheon, regarded as the
preserver. His preserving and restoring power is believed to have been
manifested in ten avatars, of which Rama and Krishna are specially
honoured and worshipped

Yaksi

Female Hindu fertility nymphs

Yamuna

White marble, name of river flowing through Delhi

Yashipal

Communist author and friend of Osho

Yatra

Pilgrim on spiritual journey to sacred places

Yoga

One of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy founded by the sage
Yajnavalkya and later codified by Patanjali in Yoga-sutra
   

Zamindar

Landholder or local ruler

Zindabad

Long live

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